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Image Sensor

Various types of image sensors covering a wide spectral response range for photometry.

Hamamatsu Photonics develops and manufactures image sensors with high sensitivity and a wide dynamic range that are ideal for high precision measurement such as spectrophotometry, as well as industrial measurement. To help you select the best devices, we offer a wide product lineup that covers a broad spectral range from the near infrared (NIR) at long wavelengths up to 2.6 um through the visible, ultraviolet, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) on down to the X-ray wavelength region.

 

Image sensor technology of Hamamatsu

CMOS technology
Hamamatsu produces CMOS image sensors that use its uniquely developed analog CMOS technology at their cores for applications mainly aimed at measuring equipment such as analytical instruments and medical equipment. With analog and digital features that meet market needs built into the same chip as the sensor, systems can be designed with high performance, multi-functionality, and low cost.
● Supports photosensitive areas of various shapes (silicon/compound semiconductor, one- and two-dimensional array, large area)
● Highly functional (high-speed or partial readout, built-in A/D converter, global shutter, etc.)
● Customization for specific applications
 
enlightenedExample of high functionality based on CMOS technology
 

Distance image sensor

This image sensor can detect distance information for the target object using the TOF (time-of-flight) method. A distance measurement system can be configured by combining a pulse-modulated light source and a signal processing section.

 

Example of distance measurement diagram

 

 

 

Compact thin COB (chip on board) package technology

Small mount area can be achieved by mounting the CMOS image sensor chip on a compact thin COB package that is about the same size. In a COB package, the chip is sealed in a resin mold, which provides high reliability and ease of use. CMOS image sensors that employ this technology can be used in a wide range of applications. They contribute to cost reduction, size reduction, and high-volume production of equipment. This technology makes our single 3.3 V power supply operated, low power consumption, high sensitivity CMOS image sensors even more easier to use.
 
 

 

 

 
 
 
 
Near infrared-enhanced CMOS area image sensor

Our unique photosensitive area technology provides high sensitivity in the near infrared region.

 

Spectral response (typical example)
 
Imaging example of finger veins using near infrared enhanced CMOS area image sensor
 

 

 

 

 

Hybrid technology (Three-dimensional mounting)

 

InGaAs image sensors for near infrared region employ a hybrid structure in which the photodiode array used as the photosensitive area and the CMOS signal processing circuit are implemented in separate chips and mounted in three dimensions using bumps. This is used when it is difficult to make the photosensitive area and the signal processing circuit monolithic. Moreover, this construction is advantageous in that the shape of the photosensitive area, spectral response, and the like can easily be modified.
 
Schematic diagram of InGaAs area image sensor using fine-pitch bumps

 

 

 

Back-thinned technology
In general, CCDs are designed to receive light from the front side where circuit patterns are formed. This type of CCD is called the front-illuminated CCD. The light input surface of front-illuminated CCDs is formed on the front surface of the silicon substrate where a BPSG film, poly-silicon electrodes, and gate oxide film are deposited. Light entering the front surface is largely reflected away and absorbed by those components. The quantum efficiency is therefore limited to approx. 40% at the highest in the visible region, and there is no sensitivity in the ultraviolet region.
Back-thinned CCDs were developed to solve such problems. Back-thinned CCDs also have a BPSG fi lm, poly-silicon electrodes, and gate oxide fi lm on the surface of the silicon substrate, but they receive light from the backside of the silicon substrate. Because of this structure, back-thinned CCDs deliver high quantum efficiency over a wide spectral range. Besides having high sensitivity and low noise which are the intrinsic features of CCDs, back-thinned CCDs are also sensitive to electron beams, soft X-rays, ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared region.
 
 

enlightenedSchematic of CCDs

Back-thinned type
 
Front-illuminated type
 

 

NMOS linear image sensor

NMOS linear image sensor
NMOS linear image sensors are self-scanning photodiode arrays designed specifically for detectors used in multichannel spectroscopy. These image sensors feature a large photosensitive area, high UV sensitivity and little sensitivity degradation with UV exposure, wide dynamic range due to low dark current and high saturation charge, superior output linearity and uniformity, and also low power consumption.

CCD linear image sensor

CCD linear image sensor
CCD linear image sensors for spectrophotometry
Back-thinned type
Front-illuminated type
 
CCD linear image sensors for industry
TDI-CCD image sensor
Front-illuminated type
 

 

CMOS linear images sensor

CMOS linear images sensor
CMOS linear image sensors for spectrophotometry
High sensitivity type
Variable integration time type
Standard type
 
CMOS linear image sensors for industry
Resin-sealed type package
High-speed readout type
High sensitivity type
Digital output type

Front-illuminated type CCD area image sensor

Front-illuminated type CCD area image sensor
Front-illuminated type CCD area image sensors are low dark current and low noise CCDs ideal for scientific measurement instruments.

CMOS area image sensor

CMOS area image sensor
These are APS (active pixel sensor) type CMOS area image sensors with high sensitivity in the near infrared region. They include a timing generator, a bias generator, an amplifi er and an A/D converter, and offer all-digital I/O for easy handling.

Back-thinned type CCD area image sensor

Back-thinned type CCD area image sensor
Back-thinned type CCD area image sensors deliver high quantum efficiency (90% or more at the peak wavelength) in spectral range up to VUV region, and have great stability for UV region. Moreover these also feature low noise and are therefore ideal for low-light-level detection.

X-ray image sensor

X-ray image sensor
With the CCD with a CsI type FOS (FOP with X-ray scintillator), the FOP functions as a shield, so X-ray damage on the CCD can be suppressed. In addition to FOS, FOP coupling is also possible. Note that products that employ GOS for the scintillator are also available as low cost types.
The TDI -CCD S7199-01 and S8658-01 can provide crosssectional
X-ray imaging of large objects through TDI operation. It can be used not only in X-ray radiography equipment but also for industrial inline non-destructive inspections.
The photodiode arrays with amplifiers that have a phosphor sheet affixed on the photosensitive area can be used in various types of inspection equipment such as inline industrial product inspection equipment and foreign matter inspection of canned and retort food.

Multichannel detector head

Multichannel detector head
Image sensors have excellent performance characteristics, but more sophisticated electronics and signal processing are required for driving image sensors than when using single-element devices. To make it easier to use image sensors, Hamamatsu provides multichannel detector heads designed for CCD/NMOS/InGaAs image sensors. These multichannel detector heads operate with the dedicated controller or software for easy data acquisition and sensor evaluation and, can extract full performance from image sensors when installed in a measurement system.

Image Sensors for Near Infrared Region

Image Sensors for Near Infrared Region
InGaAs image sensors are designed for a wide range of applications in the near infrared region. Built-in CMOS ROIC readout circuit allows easy signal processing. These image sensors use a charge amplifier mode that provides a large output signal by integrating the charge, making them ideal for low -light-level detection.

Distance image sensors

Distance image sensors
These distance image sensors are designed to measure the distance to an object by TOF method. When used in combination with a pulse modulated light source, these sensors output phase difference information on the timing that the light is emitted and received. The sensor output signals are arithmetically processed by an external signal processing circuit or a PC to obtain distance data.

Photodiode Arrays with Amplifier

Photodiode Arrays with Amplifier
Photodiode arrays with amplifier are a type of CMOS linear image sensor designed mainly for long area detection systems using an equal -magnification optical system. This sensor has two chips consisting of a photodiode array chip for light detection and a CMOS chip for signal processing and readout. A long, narrow image sensor can be configured by arranging multiple arrays in a row.

Back-thinned TDI

Back-thinned TDI

Back-thinned TDI (time delay integration)-CCDs allow acquiring high S/N images even under low-light conditions during high-speed imaging and the like. TDI operation yields dramatically enhanced sensitivity by integrating the exposure of a moving object. The back-thinned structure ensures high quantum efficiency over a wide spectral range from the ultraviolet to the near infrared region (200 to 1100 nm).

FFT-CCD area image sensor

FFT-CCD area image sensor
CCD area image sensors are semiconductor devices invented by Boyle and Smith at the AT&T Laboratory in 1970.
The CCD (Charge-Coupled Device) comes from operation/ function that charge stored in one area of the CCD is transferred (or coupled) to an adjacent area. Areas where the charge is stored are referred to as potential wells, and are created when an external voltage is applied to the gate electrodes. The struc- ture of a CCD is based upon a MOS (Metal Oxide Semiconduc- tor) capacitor (Figure 1-1). The gate electrodes (P1, P2 and P3) are usually made from a highly conductive material such as metal or polysilicon. The oxide layer is SiO2 (silicon dioxide) and the channel is a semiconductor. 

Image Sensor

Image Sensor

Back-thinned TDI (time delay integration)-CCDs allow acquiring high S/N images even under low-light conditions during high-speed imaging and the like. TDI operation yields dramatically enhanced sensitivity by integrating the exposure of a moving object. The back-thinned structure ensures high quantum efficiency over a wide spectral range from the ultraviolet to the near infrared region (200 to 1100 nm).

NMOS linear image sensors

NMOS linear image sensors

The NMOS linear image sensor is a self-scanning photodiode array designed specifically for detectors used in multichannel spectroscopy. The NMOS linear image sensor offers a number of features, for example, a large photosensitive area, high UV sensitivity, stable performance against UV exposure, wide dy- namic range due to low dark current and high saturation charge, superior output linearity and uniformity, and also low power consumption. In addition to standard types with a quartz window, devices with a fiber optic plate are available allowing efficient optical coupling to other imaging devices. Applications include not only spectroscopy but also a diverse range of image readout systems